The golden ratio in facial symmetry

Emmanuel P. Prokopakis, Ioannis M. Vlastos, Valerie Picavet, Gilbert Nolst Trenité, Regan Thomas, Cemal Cingi, Peter W. Hellings

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on speci!c examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that -value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2013


  • Beauty
  • Face
  • Golden ratio
  • Symmetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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