G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) regulates thymocyte positive selection, neutrophil-direction sensing, and cell motility during immune responses by regulating the activity of the small GTPases ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). Here, we show that Git2-deficient mice were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)- induced colitis, Escherichia coli, or endotoxin-shock challenge, and a dramatic increase in proinflammatory cytokines was observed in Git2 knockout mice and macrophages. GIT2 is a previously unidentified negative regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced NF-κB signaling. The ubiquitination of TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is critical for the activation of NF-κB. GIT2 terminates TLR-induced NF-κB and MAPK signaling by recruiting the deubiquitinating enzyme Cylindromatosis to inhibit the ubiquitination of TRAF6. Finally, we show that the susceptibility of Git2-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis depends on TLR signaling. Thus, we show that GIT2 is an essential terminator of TLR signaling and that loss of GIT2 leads to uncontrolled inflammation and severe organ damage.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 2014|
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