The HIV Outpatient Study 25 Years of HIV Patient Care and Epidemiologic Research

Kate Buchacz*, Carl Armon, Frank J. Palella, Richard M. Novak, Jack Fuhrer, Ellen Tedaldi, Douglas Ward, Cynthia Mayer, Linda Battalora, Kimberly Carlson, Stacey Purinton, Marcus Durham, Jun Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background. The clinical epidemiology of treated HIV infection in the United States has dramatically changed in the past 25 years. Few sources of longitudinal data exist for people with HIV (PWH) spanning that period. Cohort data enable investigating new exposure and disease associations and monitoring progress along the HIV care continuum. Methods. We synthesized key published findings and conducted primary data analyses in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), an open cohort of PWH seen at public and private HIV clinics since 1993. We assessed temporal trends in health outcomes (1993-2017) and mortality (1994-2017) for 10 566 HOPS participants. Results. The HOPS contributed to characterizing new conditions (eg, lipodystrophy), demonstrated reduced mortality with earlier HIV treatment, uncovered associations between select antiretroviral agents and cardiovascular disease, and documented remarkable shifts in morbidity from AIDS opportunistic infections to chronic noncommunicable diseases. The median CD4 cell count of participants increased from 244 cells/mm3 to 640 cells/mm3 from 1993 to 2017. Mortality fell from 121 to 16 per 1000 person-years from 1994 to 2017 (P .001). In 2010, 83.7% of HOPS participants had a most recent HIV viral load 200 copies/mL, compared with 92.2% in 2017. Conclusions. Since 1993, the HOPS has been detecting emerging issues and challenges in HIV disease management. HOPS data can also be used for monitoring trends in infectious and chronic diseases, immunologic and viral suppression status, retention in care, and survival, thereby informing progress toward the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number123
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV epidemiology
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • clinical outcomes
  • observational cohort
  • viral suppression.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Infectious Diseases


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