Paired immunoglobulin (Ig)-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα) and PILRβ are paired receptors that are highly homologous to each other. When engaged by ligand, PILRα is inhibitory whereas PILRβ is activating. PILRα is a newly identified herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB) receptor and is associated with membrane fusion and entry activity of HSV-1. PILRβ is a 303-amino-acid protein with an Ig-like V (variable)-type domain from amino acid 31 to 150, whereas PILRβ is a 217-amino-acid protein with an Ig-like V-type domain from amino acid 21 to 143. We report that PILRβ is not a receptor for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Domain swaps between PILRα and PILRβ reveal that the Ig-like V-type domain of PILRα, but not PILRβ, plays a critical role in cell membrane fusion activity and the binding of PILRα to gB. Individual replacement of 13 amino acids in PILRα showed that most of these mutations had no effect on cell fusion activity. However, mutation of the tryptophan residue at amino acid 139 significantly impaired cell fusion activity for HSV-1 and eliminated binding to gB.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science