The instability of functional connectomes across the first year of life

Alexander J. Dufford*, Stephanie Noble, Siyuan Gao, Dustin Scheinost

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The uniqueness and stability of the adolescent and adult functional connectome has been demonstrated to be high (80–95 % identification) using connectome-based identification (ID) or “fingerprinting”. However, it is unclear to what extent individuals exhibit similar distinctiveness and stability in infancy, a developmental period of rapid and unparalleled brain development. In this study, we examined connectome-based ID rates within and across the first year of life using a longitudinal infant dataset at 1.5 month and 9 months of age. We also calculated the test–retest reliability of individual connections across the first year of life using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Overall, we found substantially lower infant ID rates than have been reported in adult and adolescent populations. Within-session ID rates were moderate and significant (ID = 48.94–70.83 %). Between-session ID rates were very low and not significant, with task-to-task connectomes resulting in the highest between-session ID rate (ID = 26.6 %). Similarly, average edge-level test-retest reliability was higher within-session than between-session (mean within-session ICC = 0.17, mean between-session ICC = 0.10). These findings suggest a lack of uniqueness and stability in functional connectomes across the first year of life consistent with the unparalleled changes in brain functional organization during this critical period.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101007
JournalDevelopmental Cognitive Neuroscience
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Brain development
  • Connectomics
  • Fingerprinting
  • Resting-state
  • Test–retest reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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