The interplay between glioblastoma and its microenvironment

Mark Dapash, David Hou, Brandyn Castro, Catalina Lee-Chang*, Maciej S. Lesniak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, and the aggressive nature of this tumor contributes to its extremely poor prognosis. Over the years, the heterogeneous and adaptive nature of GBM has been highlighted as a major contributor to the poor efficacy of many treatments including various immunotherapies. The major challenge lies in understanding and manipulating the complex interplay among the different components within the tumor microenvironment (TME). This interplay varies not only by the type of cells interacting but also by their spatial distribution with the TME. This review highlights the various immune and non-immune components of the tumor microenvironment and their consequences f the efficacy of immunotherapies. Understanding the independent and interdependent aspects of the various sub-populations encapsulated by the immune and non-immune components will allow for more targeted therapies. Meanwhile, understanding how the TME creates and responds to different environmental pressures such as hypoxia may allow for other multimodal approaches in the treatment of GBM. Ultimately, a better understanding of the GBM TME will aid in the development and advancement of more effective treatments and in improving patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2257
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Blood-brain-barrier
  • Glioblastoma
  • Immune cells
  • Immunosuppression
  • Microenvironment
  • Regulatory T cells
  • Tumor-associated myeloid cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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