The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Ten years later

Margarita Kaushanskaya*, Henrike K. Blumenfeld, Viorica Marian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q) is a validated questionnaire tool for collecting self-reported proficiency and experience data from bilingual and multilingual speakers ages 14 to 80. It is available in over 20 languages, and can be administered in a digital, paper-and-pencil, and oral interview format. The LEAP-Q is used by researchers across various disciplines (Psychology, Neuroscience, Linguistics, Education, Communication Sciences & Disorders, etc.) to provide a comprehensive description of their bilingual participants, to substantiate a division of bilinguals into groups (e.g., early vs. late bilinguals), and to screen participants for adequate or threshold levels of language proficiency. Best practices for using the LEAP-Q include administration of the full questionnaire, consideration of acquisition and history of language use together with self-ratings of proficiency, and supplementation of self-reported data with objective language measures whenever possible. The LEAP-Q can be downloaded at no cost at

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)945-950
Number of pages6
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • LEAP-Q
  • questionnaire
  • self-report
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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