The measurement-based care to opioid treatment programs project (MBC2OTP): a study protocol using rapid assessment procedure informed clinical ethnography

Kelli Scott*, John Guigayoma, Lawrence A. Palinkas, Francesca L. Beaudoin, Melissa A. Clark, Sara Jennifer Becker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Psychosocial interventions are needed to enhance patient engagement and retention in medication treatment within opioid treatment programs. Measurement-based care (MBC), an evidence-based intervention structure that involves ongoing monitoring of treatment progress over time to assess the need for treatment modifications, has been recommended as a flexible and low-cost intervention for opioid treatment program use. The MBC2OTP Project is a two-phase pilot hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation trial that has three specific aims: (1) to employ Rapid Assessment Procedure Informed Clinical Ethnography (RAPICE) to collect mixed methods data to inform MBC implementation; (2) to use RAPICE data to adapt an MBC protocol; and (3) to conduct a hybrid type 1 trial to evaluate MBC’s preliminary effectiveness and implementation potential in opioid treatment programs. Methods: This study will be conducted in two phases. Phase 1 will include RAPICE site visits, qualitative interviews (N = 32–48 total), and quantitative surveys (N = 64–80 total) with staff at eight programs to build community partnerships and evaluate contextual factors impacting MBC implementation. Mixed methods data will be analyzed using immersion/crystallization and thematic analysis to inform MBC adaptation and site selection. Four programs selected for Phase 2 will participate in MBC electronic medical record integration, training, and ongoing support. Chart reviews will be completed in the 6 months prior-to and following MBC integration (N = 160 charts, 80 pre and post) to evaluate effectiveness (patient opioid abstinence and treatment engagement) and implementation outcomes (counselor MBC exposure and fidelity). Discussion: This study is among the first to take forward recommendations to implement and evaluate MBC in opioid treatment programs. It will also employ an innovative RAPICE approach to enhance the quality and rigor of data collection and inform the development of an MBC protocol best matched to opioid treatment programs. Overall, this work seeks to enhance treatment provision and clinical outcomes for patients with opioid use disorder. Trial registration This study will be registered with within 21 days of first participant enrollment in Phase 2. Study Phase 1 (RAPICE) does not qualify as a clinical trial, therefore Phase 2 clinical trial registration has not yet been pursued because all elements of Phase 2 will be dependent on Phase 1 outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number44
JournalAddiction Science and Clinical Practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Measurement-based care
  • Mixed methods
  • Opioid treatment programs
  • Opioid use disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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