Purpose: mTOR pathway hyperactivation occurs in approximately 90% of glioblastomas, but the allosteric mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has failed in the clinic. Here, we examine the efficacy of the newly discovered ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitors CC214-1 and CC214-2 in glioblastoma, identifying molecular determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance, and develop a pharmacologic strategy to overcome it. Experimental Design: We conducted in vitro and in vivo studies in glioblastoma cell lines and an intracranial model to: determine the potential efficacy of the recently reported mTOR kinase inhibitors CC214-1 (in vitro use) and CC214-2 (in vivo use) at inhibiting rapamycin-resistant signaling and blocking glioblastoma growth and a novel single-cell technology-DNA Encoded Antibody Libraries-was used to identify mechanisms of resistance. Results: Here, we show that CC214-1 and CC214-2 suppress rapamycin-resistant mTORC1 signaling, block mTORC2 signaling, and significantly inhibit the growth of glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. EGFRvIII expression and PTEN loss enhance sensitivity to CC214 compounds, consistent with enhanced efficacy in strongly mTOR-activated tumors. Importantly, CC214 compounds potently induce autophagy, preventing tumor cell death. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy greatly sensitizes glioblastoma cells and orthotopic xenografts to CC214-1- and CC214-2-induced cell death. Conclusions: These results identify CC214-1 and CC214-2 as potentially efficacious mTOR kinase inhibitors in glioblastoma, and suggest a strategy for identifying patients most likely to benefit from mTOR inhibition. In addition, this study also shows a central role for autophagy in preventing mTOR-kinase inhibitor-mediated tumor cell death, and suggests a pharmacologic strategy for overcoming it.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research