The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis individual response to vitamin D trial: Building a randomized clinical trial into an observational cohort study

Ian H. de Boer*, David K. Prince, Kayleen Williams, Norrina B. Allen, Gregory L. Burke, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Simon Hsu, Xiaohui Li, Kiang J. Liu, Robyn L. McClelland, Erin D. Michos, Bruce M. Psaty, Steven J. Shea, Kenneth M. Rice, Jerome I. Rotter, David S. Siscovick, Russell P. Tracy, Karol E. Watson, Bryan R. Kestenbaum

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The INdividual response to VITamin D (INVITe) trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial of vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IU daily) designed to determine clinical and genetic characteristics that modify the response to vitamin D supplementation. To enhance internal and external validity and reduce cost, the INVITe trial was nested within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), an ongoing prospective observational cohort study. The INVITe trial enrolled a community-based population of 666 racially and ethnically diverse participants from January 2017 to April 2019. This represents 30% of 2210 MESA participants approached for screening, and 96% of those found to be eligible. Barriers to enrollment included delayed initiation of the trial relative to scheduled MESA study visits, a lower number of available MESA participants than expected, and a high prevalence (18%) of high-dose vitamin D supplementation (>1000 IU daily, an exclusion criterion). The final study visit was attended by 611 participants (92%), and median adherence was 98%. Our experience suggests that integration of a randomized trial into an existing observational cohort study may leverage strengths of the source population and enhance enrollment, retention, and adherence, although with limited enrollment capacity. The INVITe trial will use rigorously-collected data to advance understanding of individual determinants of vitamin D response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106318
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
Volume103
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • Clinical trial
  • Observational cohort study
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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