The NASA twins study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight

Francine E. Garrett-Bakelman, Manjula Darshi, Stefan J. Green, Ruben C. Gur, Ling Lin, Brandon R. Macias, Miles J. McKenna, Cem Meydan, Tejaswini Mishra, Jad Nasrini, Brian D. Piening, Lindsay F. Rizzardi, Kumar Sharma, Jamila H. Siamwala, Lynn Taylor, Martha Hotz Vitaterna, Maryam Afkarian, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Sara Ahadi, Aditya AmbatiManeesh Arya, Daniela Bezdan, Colin M. Callahan, Songjie Chen, Augustine M.K. Choi, George E. Chlipala, Kévin Contrepois, Marisa Covington, Brian E. Crucian, Immaculata De Vivo, David F. Dinges, Douglas J. Ebert, Jason I. Feinberg, Jorge A. Gandara, Kerry A. George, John Goutsias, George S. Grills, Alan R. Hargens, Martina Heer, Ryan P. Hillary, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Vivian Y.H. Hook, Garrett Jenkinson, Peng Jiang, Ali Keshavarzian, Steven S. Laurie, B. Lee-McMullen, Sarah B. Lumpkins, Matthew MacKay, Mark G. Maienschein-Cline, Ari M. Melnick, Tyler M. Moore, Kiichi Nakahira, Hemal H. Patel, Robert Pietrzyk, Varsha Rao, Rintaro Saito, Denis N. Salins, Jan M. Schilling, Dorothy D. Sears, Caroline K. Sheridan, Michael B. Stenger, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Alexander E. Urban, Tomas Vaisar, Benjamin Van Espen, Jing Zhang, Michael G. Ziegler, Sara R. Zwart, John B. Charles*, Craig E. Kundrot, Graham B.I. Scott, Susan M. Bailey, Mathias Basner, Andrew P. Feinberg, Stuart M.C. Lee, Christopher E. Mason, Emmanuel Mignot, Brinda K. Rana, Scott M. Smith, Michael P. Snyder, Fred W Turek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intimamedia thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbereaau8650
JournalScience
Volume364
Issue number6436
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Space Flight
Twin Studies
Telomere
Astronauts
Gene Expression
Monozygotic Twins
Genomic Instability
Microbiota
Health
DNA Methylation
Carotid Arteries
Oxidative Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Garrett-Bakelman, F. E., Darshi, M., Green, S. J., Gur, R. C., Lin, L., Macias, B. R., ... Turek, F. W. (2019). The NASA twins study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight. Science, 364(6436), [eaau8650]. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau8650
Garrett-Bakelman, Francine E. ; Darshi, Manjula ; Green, Stefan J. ; Gur, Ruben C. ; Lin, Ling ; Macias, Brandon R. ; McKenna, Miles J. ; Meydan, Cem ; Mishra, Tejaswini ; Nasrini, Jad ; Piening, Brian D. ; Rizzardi, Lindsay F. ; Sharma, Kumar ; Siamwala, Jamila H. ; Taylor, Lynn ; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz ; Afkarian, Maryam ; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim ; Ahadi, Sara ; Ambati, Aditya ; Arya, Maneesh ; Bezdan, Daniela ; Callahan, Colin M. ; Chen, Songjie ; Choi, Augustine M.K. ; Chlipala, George E. ; Contrepois, Kévin ; Covington, Marisa ; Crucian, Brian E. ; De Vivo, Immaculata ; Dinges, David F. ; Ebert, Douglas J. ; Feinberg, Jason I. ; Gandara, Jorge A. ; George, Kerry A. ; Goutsias, John ; Grills, George S. ; Hargens, Alan R. ; Heer, Martina ; Hillary, Ryan P. ; Hoofnagle, Andrew N. ; Hook, Vivian Y.H. ; Jenkinson, Garrett ; Jiang, Peng ; Keshavarzian, Ali ; Laurie, Steven S. ; Lee-McMullen, B. ; Lumpkins, Sarah B. ; MacKay, Matthew ; Maienschein-Cline, Mark G. ; Melnick, Ari M. ; Moore, Tyler M. ; Nakahira, Kiichi ; Patel, Hemal H. ; Pietrzyk, Robert ; Rao, Varsha ; Saito, Rintaro ; Salins, Denis N. ; Schilling, Jan M. ; Sears, Dorothy D. ; Sheridan, Caroline K. ; Stenger, Michael B. ; Tryggvadottir, Rakel ; Urban, Alexander E. ; Vaisar, Tomas ; Van Espen, Benjamin ; Zhang, Jing ; Ziegler, Michael G. ; Zwart, Sara R. ; Charles, John B. ; Kundrot, Craig E. ; Scott, Graham B.I. ; Bailey, Susan M. ; Basner, Mathias ; Feinberg, Andrew P. ; Lee, Stuart M.C. ; Mason, Christopher E. ; Mignot, Emmanuel ; Rana, Brinda K. ; Smith, Scott M. ; Snyder, Michael P. ; Turek, Fred W. / The NASA twins study : A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight. In: Science. 2019 ; Vol. 364, No. 6436.
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abstract = "To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intimamedia thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.",
author = "Garrett-Bakelman, {Francine E.} and Manjula Darshi and Green, {Stefan J.} and Gur, {Ruben C.} and Ling Lin and Macias, {Brandon R.} and McKenna, {Miles J.} and Cem Meydan and Tejaswini Mishra and Jad Nasrini and Piening, {Brian D.} and Rizzardi, {Lindsay F.} and Kumar Sharma and Siamwala, {Jamila H.} and Lynn Taylor and Vitaterna, {Martha Hotz} and Maryam Afkarian and Ebrahim Afshinnekoo and Sara Ahadi and Aditya Ambati and Maneesh Arya and Daniela Bezdan and Callahan, {Colin M.} and Songjie Chen and Choi, {Augustine M.K.} and Chlipala, {George E.} and K{\'e}vin Contrepois and Marisa Covington and Crucian, {Brian E.} and {De Vivo}, Immaculata and Dinges, {David F.} and Ebert, {Douglas J.} and Feinberg, {Jason I.} and Gandara, {Jorge A.} and George, {Kerry A.} and John Goutsias and Grills, {George S.} and Hargens, {Alan R.} and Martina Heer and Hillary, {Ryan P.} and Hoofnagle, {Andrew N.} and Hook, {Vivian Y.H.} and Garrett Jenkinson and Peng Jiang and Ali Keshavarzian and Laurie, {Steven S.} and B. Lee-McMullen and Lumpkins, {Sarah B.} and Matthew MacKay and Maienschein-Cline, {Mark G.} and Melnick, {Ari M.} and Moore, {Tyler M.} and Kiichi Nakahira and Patel, {Hemal H.} and Robert Pietrzyk and Varsha Rao and Rintaro Saito and Salins, {Denis N.} and Schilling, {Jan M.} and Sears, {Dorothy D.} and Sheridan, {Caroline K.} and Stenger, {Michael B.} and Rakel Tryggvadottir and Urban, {Alexander E.} and Tomas Vaisar and {Van Espen}, Benjamin and Jing Zhang and Ziegler, {Michael G.} and Zwart, {Sara R.} and Charles, {John B.} and Kundrot, {Craig E.} and Scott, {Graham B.I.} and Bailey, {Susan M.} and Mathias Basner and Feinberg, {Andrew P.} and Lee, {Stuart M.C.} and Mason, {Christopher E.} and Emmanuel Mignot and Rana, {Brinda K.} and Smith, {Scott M.} and Snyder, {Michael P.} and Turek, {Fred W}",
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doi = "10.1126/science.aau8650",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "364",
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Garrett-Bakelman, FE, Darshi, M, Green, SJ, Gur, RC, Lin, L, Macias, BR, McKenna, MJ, Meydan, C, Mishra, T, Nasrini, J, Piening, BD, Rizzardi, LF, Sharma, K, Siamwala, JH, Taylor, L, Vitaterna, MH, Afkarian, M, Afshinnekoo, E, Ahadi, S, Ambati, A, Arya, M, Bezdan, D, Callahan, CM, Chen, S, Choi, AMK, Chlipala, GE, Contrepois, K, Covington, M, Crucian, BE, De Vivo, I, Dinges, DF, Ebert, DJ, Feinberg, JI, Gandara, JA, George, KA, Goutsias, J, Grills, GS, Hargens, AR, Heer, M, Hillary, RP, Hoofnagle, AN, Hook, VYH, Jenkinson, G, Jiang, P, Keshavarzian, A, Laurie, SS, Lee-McMullen, B, Lumpkins, SB, MacKay, M, Maienschein-Cline, MG, Melnick, AM, Moore, TM, Nakahira, K, Patel, HH, Pietrzyk, R, Rao, V, Saito, R, Salins, DN, Schilling, JM, Sears, DD, Sheridan, CK, Stenger, MB, Tryggvadottir, R, Urban, AE, Vaisar, T, Van Espen, B, Zhang, J, Ziegler, MG, Zwart, SR, Charles, JB, Kundrot, CE, Scott, GBI, Bailey, SM, Basner, M, Feinberg, AP, Lee, SMC, Mason, CE, Mignot, E, Rana, BK, Smith, SM, Snyder, MP & Turek, FW 2019, 'The NASA twins study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight', Science, vol. 364, no. 6436, eaau8650. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau8650

The NASA twins study : A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight. / Garrett-Bakelman, Francine E.; Darshi, Manjula; Green, Stefan J.; Gur, Ruben C.; Lin, Ling; Macias, Brandon R.; McKenna, Miles J.; Meydan, Cem; Mishra, Tejaswini; Nasrini, Jad; Piening, Brian D.; Rizzardi, Lindsay F.; Sharma, Kumar; Siamwala, Jamila H.; Taylor, Lynn; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Afkarian, Maryam; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Ahadi, Sara; Ambati, Aditya; Arya, Maneesh; Bezdan, Daniela; Callahan, Colin M.; Chen, Songjie; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Chlipala, George E.; Contrepois, Kévin; Covington, Marisa; Crucian, Brian E.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Dinges, David F.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Feinberg, Jason I.; Gandara, Jorge A.; George, Kerry A.; Goutsias, John; Grills, George S.; Hargens, Alan R.; Heer, Martina; Hillary, Ryan P.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Hook, Vivian Y.H.; Jenkinson, Garrett; Jiang, Peng; Keshavarzian, Ali; Laurie, Steven S.; Lee-McMullen, B.; Lumpkins, Sarah B.; MacKay, Matthew; Maienschein-Cline, Mark G.; Melnick, Ari M.; Moore, Tyler M.; Nakahira, Kiichi; Patel, Hemal H.; Pietrzyk, Robert; Rao, Varsha; Saito, Rintaro; Salins, Denis N.; Schilling, Jan M.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Sheridan, Caroline K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Tryggvadottir, Rakel; Urban, Alexander E.; Vaisar, Tomas; Van Espen, Benjamin; Zhang, Jing; Ziegler, Michael G.; Zwart, Sara R.; Charles, John B.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Scott, Graham B.I.; Bailey, Susan M.; Basner, Mathias; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Mason, Christopher E.; Mignot, Emmanuel; Rana, Brinda K.; Smith, Scott M.; Snyder, Michael P.; Turek, Fred W.

In: Science, Vol. 364, No. 6436, eaau8650, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The NASA twins study

T2 - A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight

AU - Garrett-Bakelman, Francine E.

AU - Darshi, Manjula

AU - Green, Stefan J.

AU - Gur, Ruben C.

AU - Lin, Ling

AU - Macias, Brandon R.

AU - McKenna, Miles J.

AU - Meydan, Cem

AU - Mishra, Tejaswini

AU - Nasrini, Jad

AU - Piening, Brian D.

AU - Rizzardi, Lindsay F.

AU - Sharma, Kumar

AU - Siamwala, Jamila H.

AU - Taylor, Lynn

AU - Vitaterna, Martha Hotz

AU - Afkarian, Maryam

AU - Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim

AU - Ahadi, Sara

AU - Ambati, Aditya

AU - Arya, Maneesh

AU - Bezdan, Daniela

AU - Callahan, Colin M.

AU - Chen, Songjie

AU - Choi, Augustine M.K.

AU - Chlipala, George E.

AU - Contrepois, Kévin

AU - Covington, Marisa

AU - Crucian, Brian E.

AU - De Vivo, Immaculata

AU - Dinges, David F.

AU - Ebert, Douglas J.

AU - Feinberg, Jason I.

AU - Gandara, Jorge A.

AU - George, Kerry A.

AU - Goutsias, John

AU - Grills, George S.

AU - Hargens, Alan R.

AU - Heer, Martina

AU - Hillary, Ryan P.

AU - Hoofnagle, Andrew N.

AU - Hook, Vivian Y.H.

AU - Jenkinson, Garrett

AU - Jiang, Peng

AU - Keshavarzian, Ali

AU - Laurie, Steven S.

AU - Lee-McMullen, B.

AU - Lumpkins, Sarah B.

AU - MacKay, Matthew

AU - Maienschein-Cline, Mark G.

AU - Melnick, Ari M.

AU - Moore, Tyler M.

AU - Nakahira, Kiichi

AU - Patel, Hemal H.

AU - Pietrzyk, Robert

AU - Rao, Varsha

AU - Saito, Rintaro

AU - Salins, Denis N.

AU - Schilling, Jan M.

AU - Sears, Dorothy D.

AU - Sheridan, Caroline K.

AU - Stenger, Michael B.

AU - Tryggvadottir, Rakel

AU - Urban, Alexander E.

AU - Vaisar, Tomas

AU - Van Espen, Benjamin

AU - Zhang, Jing

AU - Ziegler, Michael G.

AU - Zwart, Sara R.

AU - Charles, John B.

AU - Kundrot, Craig E.

AU - Scott, Graham B.I.

AU - Bailey, Susan M.

AU - Basner, Mathias

AU - Feinberg, Andrew P.

AU - Lee, Stuart M.C.

AU - Mason, Christopher E.

AU - Mignot, Emmanuel

AU - Rana, Brinda K.

AU - Smith, Scott M.

AU - Snyder, Michael P.

AU - Turek, Fred W

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intimamedia thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.

AB - To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intimamedia thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.

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Garrett-Bakelman FE, Darshi M, Green SJ, Gur RC, Lin L, Macias BR et al. The NASA twins study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight. Science. 2019 Jan 1;364(6436). eaau8650. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau8650