The need for more holistic immune profiling in next-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials

Robert L. Murphy*, Eustache Paramithiotis, Scott Sugden, Todd Chermak, Bruce Lambert, Damien Montamat-Sicotte, John Mattison, Steve Steinhubl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


First-generation anit-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly successful. They rapidly met an unforeseen emergency need, saved millions of lives, and simultaneously eased the burden on healthcare systems worldwide. The first-generation vaccines, however, focused too narrowly on antibody-based immunity as the sole marker of vaccine trial success, resulting in large knowledge gaps about waning vaccine protection, lack of vaccine robustness to viral mutation, and lack of efficacy in immunocompromised populations. Detailed reviews of first-generation vaccines, including their mode of action and geographical distribution, have been published elsewhere. Second-generation clinical trials must address these gaps by evaluating a broader range of immune markers, including those representing cell-mediated immunity, to ensure the most protective and long-lasting vaccines are brought to market.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number923106
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - Sep 20 2022


  • COVID - 19
  • SARS – CoV – 2
  • cellular immunity
  • immune profiling
  • vaccine trial design
  • vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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