The network of cytokines in brain metastases

Jawad Fares, Alex Cordero, Deepak Kanojia, Maciej S. Lesniak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Brain metastases are the most common of all intracranial tumors and a major cause of death in patients with cancer. Cytokines, including chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumor necrosis factors are key regulators in the formation of brain metastases. They regulate the infiltration of different cellular subsets into the tumor microenvironment and affect the therapeutic outcomes in patients. Elucidating the cancer cell-cytokine interactions in the setting of brain metastases is crucial for the development of more accurate diagnostics and efficacious therapies. In this review, we focus on cytokines that are found in the tumor microenvironment of brain metastases and elaborate on their trends of expression, regulation, and roles in cellular recruitment and tumori-genesis. We also explore how cytokines can alter the anti-tumor response in the context of brain metastases and discuss ways through which cytokine networks can be manipulated for diagnosis and treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number142
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Brain metastasis
  • Brain tumor
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Interferons
  • Interleukins
  • Lymphokines
  • Tumor necrosis factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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