The Neuro-Ophthalmic Examination

Grant T. Liu, Nicholas J. Volpe, Steven L. Galetta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


The neuro-ophthalmic examination combines ophthalmic and neurologic techniques to assess the patient's vision, pupillary function, ocular motility, eyelids, orbits, fundus appearance, and neurologic status. In most cases, after obtaining the history, the examiner should have already formed an opinion regarding the possible localization and differential diagnosis. The examination then either supports or refutes these initial impressions; examination findings may also prompt consideration of other diagnoses. In this chapter, the major elements of the neuro-ophthalmic examination are reviewed, and in each section, disorders that affect them are mentioned briefly. The neuro-ophthalmic examination in comatose patients is also reviewed. The reader should then refer to the appropriate chapters for more detailed differential diagnoses and discussions of the pathologic disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLiu, Volpe, and Galetta's Neuro-Ophthalmology
Subtitle of host publicationDiagnosis and Management
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9780323340441
ISBN (Print)9780323340458
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • eyelid examination
  • fundus examination
  • neuro-ophthalmic examination
  • ocular motility examination
  • orbit examination
  • pupil examination
  • visual acuity examination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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