The organization of expert systems, a tutorial

Mark Stefik*, Jan Aikins, Robert Balzer, John Benoit, Lawrence Birnbaum, Frederick Hayes-Roth, Earl Sacerdoti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

149 Scopus citations


This is a tutorial about the organization of expert problem-solving programs. We begin with a restricted class of problems that admits a very simple organization. To make this organization feasible it is required that the input data be static and reliable and that the solution space be small enough to search exhaustively. These assumptions are then relaxed, one at a time, in case study of ten more sophisticated organizational prescriptions. The first cases give techniques for dealing with unreliable data and time-varying data. Other cases show techniques for creating and reasoning with abstract solution spaces and using multiple lines of reasoning. The prescriptions are compared for their coverage and illustrated by examples from recent expert systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-173
Number of pages39
JournalArtificial Intelligence
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1982

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Artificial Intelligence


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