The outer limits of implicit memory

Anthony J. Ryals, Joel L. Voss

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations


Memory is “implicit” when it is expressed through behavior without an individual’s awareness. Implicit memory is in contrast with various explicit expressions of memory that occur with awareness, such as the experience of recollecting past events. Whereas explicit memory is generally considered robust and varied in expression, standard accounts of implicit memory have focused on its apparent limitations, emphasizing constraints on the types of information it may concern, its duration, the brain regions involved, and the range of behaviors through which it can be expressed. We describe these beliefs about the limitations of implicit memory, and outline how recent research has considerably expanded the scope of implicit memory. By reviewing these “outer limits” of implicit memory, we suggest that it is a robust phenomenon that is operative in a variety of circumstances, has a complex functional neuroanatomy, and is relevant to a wide variety of behaviors concerning many stimulus categories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Wiley Handbook on The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781118332610
ISBN (Print)9781118332597
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Amnesia
  • Episodic memory
  • Explicit memory
  • Implicit memory
  • Priming
  • Unconscious

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'The outer limits of implicit memory'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this