The past, present and future of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibition

Robert J. Mentz*, George L. Bakris, Bernard Waeber, John J.V. McMurray, Mihai Gheorghiade, Luis M. Ruilope, Aldo P. Maggioni, Karl Swedberg, Ileana L. Piña, Mona Fiuzat, Christopher M. O'Connor, Faiez Zannad, Bertram Pitt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations


The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is central to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. RAAS inhibition can reduce blood pressure, prevent target organ damage in hypertension and diabetes, and improve outcomes in patients with heart failure and/or myocardial infarction. This review presents the history of RAAS inhibition including a summary of key heart failure, myocardial infarction, hypertension and atrial fibrillation trials. Recent developments in RAAS inhibition are discussed including implementation and optimization of current drug therapies. Finally, ongoing clinical trials, opportunities for future trials and issues related to the barriers and approvability of novel RAAS inhibitors are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1677-1687
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013


  • Clinical trials
  • Heart failure
  • Hypertension
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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