The pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome: Lessons from ovarian stimulation studies

R. B. Barnes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) the ovary produces markedly increased amounts of both androgens and estrogens in response to gonadotropin stimulation. Distinctive responses of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione to ovarian stimulation testing suggest that ovarian hyperandrogenism is a result of dysregulation of theca cell androgen production which is intrinsic to the ovary. The occurrence of hyperestrogenism together with hyperandrogenism in PCOS suggests that whatever the abnormality of local regulatory factors of steroidogenesis, it affects granulosa as well as theca cells. Dysregulation is often associated with an increase in the number of follicles which evade atresia and reach the 2-8 mm stage of development. Autocrine/paracrine factors, especially those which are FSH-dependent, likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of the ovarian abnormality. Both LH and insulin hypersecretion probably play a secondary role in PCOS by amplifying the preexisting ovarian dysregulation. Because FSH secretion is under tight long-loop negative-feedback control and LH is not, hyperandrogenism is the primary clinical manifestation of dysregulation of steroid production in PCOS. However, anovulation in PCOS is most likely a result of excessive estrogen and inhibin production by multiple, small follicles which inhibit FSH secretory dynamics sufficiently to prevent selection of a dominant follicle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-579
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Endocrinological Investigation
Volume21
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998

Keywords

  • Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism
  • Granulosa cell
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Theca cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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