The plastid genome of the hornwort Nothoceros aenigmaticus (Dendrocerotaceae): Phylogenetic signal in inverted repeat expansion, pseudogenization, and intron gain

Juan Carlos Villarreal, Laura Lowe Forrest, Norman Wickett, Bernard Goffinet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Premise of the study: The previously sequenced plastome of the hornwort Anthoceros angustus differs from that of other bryophytes by an expanded inverted repeat (IR) and the presence of a type I intron in the 23S ribosomal RNA (rrn23) gene. We assembled the plastome of the hornwort Nothoceros aenigmaticus, contrasted its architecture to that of other bryophytes, and assessed the phylogenetic significance of genomic characters in hornwort evolution. Methods: The Nothoceros plastome was reconstructed from shotgun sequencing of genomic DNA. Comparison with the Anthoceros plastome revealed three structural differences. We sequenced these regions in taxa spanning the hornwort phylogeny. Key results: The Nothoceros plastome is colinear with other bryophyte plastomes, but differs from the Anthoceros plastome by several gene regions located within the IR in Anthoceros being in the large single-copy region in Nothoceros, by the rrn23 gene lacking an intron, and by the rpl2 being a pseudogene. Comparisons across the hornwort phylogeny indicate that the first two characters are restricted to Anthocerotaceae, while rpl2 pseudogenization diagnoses the sister lineage to Anthocerotaceae. Conclusions: The Nothoceros plastome is structurally similar to that of most bryophytes. However, we identified more structural differences within hornworts than have been described within either the mosses or the liverworts. The distribution of the gene duplication involving the IR and an intron in the rrn23 gene are restricted to Anthocerotaceae. Occurrence of the intron and the conserved intron sequence between Anthoceros and distantly related chlorophyte algae may be due to horizontal gene transfer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-477
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Botany
Volume100
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013

Keywords

  • 23S ribosomal RNA gene
  • Dendrocerotaceae
  • Horizontal gene transfer
  • Hornworts
  • Nothoceros aenigmaticus
  • Plastome
  • Pseudogene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

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