The power of two, speed of light, force and energy and the universal gas constant

Charles A. Long, Siavash H. Sohrab

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


The application of c2 in relation to mass and energy had an interesting history. The Pythagorean theorem is involved. Even in basic Newtonian physics the studies of retarded speed (in collisions) suggest multiplication of sums. When p = mv, and v = c, the term m c2 appears, which was one relation of momentum written by Poincaré. He also related mass and the speed of light to a complementary electromagnetic force. De Pretto had already proposed energy equal to the product of mass and the speed of light squared. His was precisely the famous equation. He applied it hypothetically into supposed material ether. He certainly considered mass as comprised of a great amount of latent heat, and mentioned how small the particles of ethereal matter must be to have escaped notice. He implied matter was miniscule in relation to its latent energy. Einstein also recognized the compact and enormous energy in mass, eventually writing out the famous equation thereby establishing its popularity. By algebraic manipulations of sums and products, even common denominators, the square of light speed c became commonplace in physics, never related to the Euclidian concept, although it could be and could have been. A possible way that De Pretto could have arrived at his number 8338 is suggested and his number is identified as the modified universal gas constant R = 8338 Joules/(kgmol-K).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the American Conference on Applied Mathematics (MATH'08 )
EditorsCharles Long, Siavash H. Sohrab, Gabriella Bognar, Leonid Perlovsky
PublisherWSEAS Press
ISBN (Print)9789606766473
StatePublished - Mar 24 2008
EventAmerican Conference on Applied Mathematics - Cambridge, Massachusetts
Duration: Mar 1 2008 → …


ConferenceAmerican Conference on Applied Mathematics
Period3/1/08 → …


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