The psychometric properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference

Sarah D. Mills, Rina S. Fox, Vanessa L. Malcarne*, Scott C. Roesch, Brian R. Champagne, Georgia Robins Sadler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a unidimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 6) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness-of-fit of the unidimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across languagepreference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across languagepreference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical Health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The unidimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)463-468
Number of pages6
JournalCultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • GAD-7
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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