The relation between depression and anxiety: An evaluation of the tripartite, approach-withdrawal and valence-arousal models

Stewart A Shankman*, Daniel N. Klein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

135 Scopus citations

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have consistently reported that depressive and anxiety disorders co-occur frequently. This paper reviews the evidence for three models that have been proposed to explain the relation between these two conditions - the tripartite, the approach-withdrawal, and valence-arousal models. Specifically, we focus on predictions that the three models generate for cross-sectional studies, prospective and family/twin studies of personality, and EEG studies. In sum, no model was strongly supported across all types of studies, though specific aspects of each model were. Because of the heterogeneity of depression and anxiety disorders, a model with 2-4 factors or dimensions may not be sufficient to explain the relation between the two conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)605-637
Number of pages33
JournalClinical Psychology Review
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2003

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Anxious apprehension
  • Anxious arousal
  • Approach withdrawal
  • Depression
  • Tripartite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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