The relationship of cigarette smoking to peripheral arterial disease

Jeffrey T. Lu*, Mark A. Creager

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

89 Scopus citations


Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Smoking increases the risk of PAD by several fold and is a more influential risk factor for PAD than for coronary artery disease. Multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms may account for the prevalence of atherosclerosis in cigarette smokers. These include abnormalities of endothelial function, lipoprotein metabolism, coagulation, and platelet function. Smoking cessation decreases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and may improve functional capacity in patients with PAD. Therapies to promote smoking cessation include counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Healthcare providers must enhance their efforts and target smoking cessation as a modifiable risk factor in patients with PAD and other manifestations of atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-193
Number of pages5
JournalReviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Intermittent claudication
  • Nicotine
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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