The relationship of dietary cholesterol with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and confounding by reverse causality: The INTERLIPID study

INTERMAP and INTERLIPID Research Groups

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: The positive relationship between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol has been questioned by a set of recent cohort studies. This study aimed to investigate how employment status and education years relate to the association between dietary cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a Japanese population. Methods: A population-based, random sample, cross-sectional study (INTERLIPID) was performed. Among 1,145 Japanese individuals aged 40-59 years, 106 were excluded because of special diets, use of lipid-lowering drugs, hormone replacement, and missing data, leaving 1,039 individuals (533 men and 506 women). Dietary cholesterol was assessed from four 24-h dietary recalls, and LDL-C was measured enzymatically with an autoanalyzer. A standard questionnaire inquired about employment status and education years. Results: In men, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher dietary cholesterol was associated with 3.16 mg/dL lower serum LDL-C (P=0.009; unadjusted model). After adjustment for covariates, higher serum LDL-C was estimated per 1 SD higher intake of dietary cholesterol in nonemployed men [self-employed, homemakers, farmers, fishermen, and retired employees; β = +9.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = +0.90-+17.27] and less educated men (β =+4.46, 95% CI= -0.97-+9.90), whereas an inverse association was observed in employed men (β =-3.02, 95% CI= -5.49--0.54) and more educated men (β =-3.66, 95% CI= -6.25--1.07). Conclusions: In men who were nonemployed and less educated, a higher intake of dietary cholesterol was associated with elevated concentrations of serum LDL-C, whereas an inverse association was observed in men who were employed and more educated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-182
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Lifestyle modification
  • Reverse causality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Biochemistry, medical

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