Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical and other anogenital as well as oral cancers. Approximately fifty percent of virally induced cancers in the USA are associated with HPV infections. HPVs infect stratified epithelia and link productive replication with differentiation. The viral oncoproteins, E6, E7, and E5, play important roles in regulating viral functions during the viral life cycle and also contribute to the development of cancers. p53 and Rb are two major targets of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but additional cellular proteins also play important roles. E5 plays an auxiliary role in contributing to the development of cancers. This review will discuss the various targets of these viral proteins and what roles they play in viral pathogenesis.