The role of xanthine oxidase in platelet activating factor induced intestinal injury in the rat

X. W. Qu, R. A. Rozenfeld, W. Huang, G. B. Bulkley, W. Hsueh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background - Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important source of reactive oxygen species in the small intestine. Aims - To examine the interaction of platelet activating factor (PAF), XO, and neutrophils in mediating intestinal injury in rats. Methods - Two doses of PAF were used to induce either reversible hypotension, or irreversible shock with intestinal necrosis. The activities of XO, and its precursor xanthine dehydrogenase (XD), in both the whole intestinal tissue and epithelial cells, were measured. XO was localized by histochemical staining. Results - PAF dose dependently induced an increase in XO activity, predominantly in the ileal epithelium, without altering the total activity of XD+XO. Most of the XD to XO conversion was via proteolysis. PAF induced XO activation and intestinal injury were prevented by prior neutrophil depletion. PAF induced XO activation is probably not due to reperfusion, as XO activation preceded the recovery of mesenteric flow. Allopurinol pretreatment substantially inhibited intestinal neutrophil sequestration induced by high dose (but not low dose) PAF. Conclusions - PAF rapidly activates intestinal XO through proteolytic XD-XO conversion, predominantly in the ileal epithelium. This effect is mediated by neutrophils. XO activation promotes PAF induced polymorphonuclear leucocyte sequestration in the intestine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-211
Number of pages9
JournalGut
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

Keywords

  • Leucocyte adhesion
  • Neutrophils
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Shock
  • Xanthine dehydrogenase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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    Qu, X. W., Rozenfeld, R. A., Huang, W., Bulkley, G. B., & Hsueh, W. (1999). The role of xanthine oxidase in platelet activating factor induced intestinal injury in the rat. Gut, 44(2), 203-211. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.44.2.203