The spindle assembly checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that blocks anaphase onset until all chromosomes are properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. Checkpoint activity requires kinetochore localization of Mad1/Mad2 to inhibit activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclo-some in the presence of unattached kinetochores. In budding yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans, Bub1, recruited to kinetochores through KNL1, recruits Mad1/Mad2 by direct linkage with Mad1. However, in human cells it is not yet established which kinetochore protein(s) function as the Mad1/Mad2 receptor. Both Bub1 and the RZZ complex have been implicated in Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment; however, their specific roles remain unclear. Here, we investigate the contributions of Bub1, RZZ and KNL1 to Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. We find that the RZZ complex localizes to the N-terminus of KNL1, downstream of Bub1, to mediate robust Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization. Our data also point to the existence of a KNL1-, Bub1-independent mechanism for RZZ and Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore recruitment. Based on our results, we propose that in humans, the primary mediator for Mad1/Mad2 kinetochore localization is the RZZ complex.
- RZZ complex
- Spindle checkpoint
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)