The statistics of replication

Larry V. Hedges*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The concept of replication is fundamental to the logic and rhetoric of science, including the argument that science is self-correcting. Yet there is very little literature on the methodology of replication. In this article, I argue that the definition of replication should not require underlying effects to be identical, but should permit some variation in true effects to be allowed. I note that different possible analyses could be used to determine whether studies replicate. Finally, I argue that a single replication study is almost never adequate to determine whether a result replicates. Thus, methodological work on the design of replication studies would be useful.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-14
Number of pages12
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2019


  • Meta-analysis
  • Replication crisis
  • Replications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)
  • Psychology(all)


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