The Transition of a Type IIL Supernova into a Supernova Remnant: Late-time Observations of SN 2013by

C. S. Black, D. Milisavljevic, R. Margutti, R. A. Fesen, D. Patnaude, S. Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


We present early-time Swift and Chandra X-ray data along with late-time optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2013by, a Type IIL supernova (SN) that occurred in the nearby spiral galaxy ESO 138-G10 (D ∼ 14.8 Mpc). Optical and NIR photometry and spectroscopy follow the late-time evolution of the SN from days +89 to +457 post maximum brightness. The optical spectra and X-ray light curves are consistent with the picture of an SN having prolonged interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) that accelerates the transition from SN to supernova remnant (SNR). Specifically, we find SN 2013by's Hα profile exhibits significant broadening (∼10,000 km s-1) on day +457, the likely consequence of high-velocity, H-rich material being excited by a reverse shock. A relatively flat X-ray light curve is observed that cannot be modeled using Inverse Compton scattering processes alone, but requires an additional energy source most likely originating from the SN-CSM interaction. In addition, we see the first overtone of CO emission near 2.3 μm on day +152, signaling the formation of molecules and dust in the SN ejecta and is the first time CO has been detected in a Type IIL SN. We compare SN 2013by with Type IIP SNe, whose spectra show the rarely observed SN-to-SNR transition in varying degrees and conclude that Type IIL SNe may enter the remnant phase at earlier epochs than their Type IIP counterparts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 10 2017


  • supernovae: general
  • supernovae: individual (SN 2013by)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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