The limitations of standard fluoroscopy have led to the development of improved imaging techniques to guide noncoronary cardiac interventions. Imaging tools that are used in the interventional laboratory can be categorized as invasive and noninvasive. Noninvasive cardiac imaging tools include ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. These modalities can generate high-resolution images of the heart and are increasingly being used to guide cardiac interventions. Despite these advances, there remains a strong role for invasive imaging tools in the interventional laboratories. Such invasive imaging tools include transesophageal echocardiography, intracardiac echocardiography, intracardiac endoscopy, and electroanatomic mapping systems. Despite the risks inherent to the invasive nature of these tools, these modalities can provide excellent real-time, detailed images that can be invaluable in guiding certain cardiac interventions. This review will propose the features of an ideal intracardiac imaging tool, summarize the intracardiac imaging tools that are currently available or under development to guide noncoronary cardiac interventional procedures, and suggest opportunities for improvement. One opportunity in this field is to couple imaging systems directly with the interventional devices themselves. The use of intracardiac imaging to guide select cardiac procedures including transseptal catheterization, catheter ablation procedures for arrhythmias, and percutaneous placement of cardiac valves and closure devices will also be discussed. Most of this review will be devoted to intracardiac echocardiography, which currently has the broadest number of applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine