The WADA code: the maximum extent of enforcement

Daniel J Gandert*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This article describes how in addition to providing the minimum penalty for anti-doping violations, the World Anti-Doping Code provides the maximum penalty that may be provided. It explains how sports organizations, including the IOC, have repeatedly found that additional sanctions cannot be added for doping offences beyond the penalty prescribed by the code at the time of the athlete’s offence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-293
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Policy and Politics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 3 2019


  • Court of Arbitration for Sport
  • Olympics
  • World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
  • World Anti-Doping Code (WADC)
  • doping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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