Thermodynamic modeling of the nickel-lead-tin system

G. Ghosh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


A set of self-consistent thermodynamic model parameters is presented to describe the phase equilibria of nickel-lead (Ni-Pb) and nickel-tin (Ni-Sn) systems. Sublattice descriptions are used for thermodynamic modeling of the η-Ni3Sn, λ-Ni3Sn, η-Ni3Sn2, λ-Ni3Sn2, and Ni3Sn4 phases. A three-sublattice and a four-sublattice model are used to describe the molar Gibbs energies of η-Ni3Sn2 and λ-Ni3Sn2, respectively, and also to describe the second-order phase transition from η-Ni3Sn2 to λ-Ni3Sn2. In the majority of the cases, the agreement between the experimental data and the calculated values is very good. Since the experimental Ni-Pb-Sn ternary-phase diagrams are not known, several isothermal sections are calculated based on thermodynamic principles. They are of practical importance as related to microelectronics soldering applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1481-1494
Number of pages14
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


Dive into the research topics of 'Thermodynamic modeling of the nickel-lead-tin system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this