Thermomechanically induced voiding of Al-Cu thin films

Charles S. Whitman, Yip Wah Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


It is now recognized that voiding failures in Al-Cu interconnects in integrated circuits are due to the high residual stresses developed as a result of thermal expansion mismatch between A1 and Si or SiO2. In this paper, we review some of the current theoretical developments in calculating times to failure for these interconnects. Thermal cycling experiments were performed to determine times to failure under different testing conditions. These results were then compared with the recent theory developed here at Northwestern. It is based on consideration of grain- boundary and surface diffusion and fracture mechanics. The theory appears to give predictions that agree very well with experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2516-2522
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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