Three dimensional virtual reality model of the normal female pelvic floor

Mansi Parikh, Mary Rasmussen, Linda Brubaker, Caryl Salomon, Kyoko Sakamoto, Raymond Evenhouse, Zhumming Ai, Margo S. Damaser*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


The anatomy of the pelvic floor is complex and difficult to visualize from conventional two-dimensional anatomy pictures. The goal of this project was to establish the methods necessary to develop a static three-dimensional virtual reality model of the normal female pelvic floor from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. An asymptomatic nulliparous 23-year-old female with no urinary incontinence symptoms underwent a high-resolution pelvic floor MRI scan. Selected pelvic floor structures were manually segmented: bladder, urethra, vagina, uterus, cervix, levator ani, obturator externus, obturator intemus, and pubic bone. With high-resolution scans, accurate segmentation of the structures was possible. The completed models were displayed on an ImmersaDesk Virtual Reality system and three clinicians verified their accuracy. Stereovision glasses were used to enhance the model while a receiver tracked head position. Three-dimensional virtual reality models of the female pelvic floor can enhance our understanding of anatomy and physiology of this complex part of the body. They can be used as tools for both research and teaching, facilitating improved treatment of pelvic floor pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-296
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2004


  • Anatomy
  • Imaging
  • Pelvis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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