Thresholds for inducing protective stepping responses to external perturbations of human standing

M. L. Mille, M. W. Rogers*, K. Martinez, L. D. Hedman, M. E. Johnson, S. R. Lord, R. C. Fitzpatrick

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Standing subjects were unexpectedly pulled forward to identify a threshold boundary that evokes stepping in terms of the size of the pull relative to the base of support (BoS). Performances in a range of sensorimotor tests were correlated with the threshold boundary parameters. Younger and older subjects were studied to identify age-related changes in stepping and the threshold boundaries. The threshold boundary had a forward limit (TL) that, when crossed, always made subjects step no matter how slowly they were pulled. As velocity increased, the threshold position that produced a step shifted nearer to the ankles. Eventually a pull velocity was reached above which velocity had no further effect and a position threshold (TH) was identified behind which subjects never stepped. Thus the position threshold boundary for stepping is a posterior-going sigmoidal function of perturbation velocity. Older subjects stepped more than the young (69% vs. 40% of trials). For the older subjects, TL (91% vs. 107% BoS) and TH (59% vs. 72% BoS) were closer to the ankles, and the transition between T L and TH occurred at lower velocities (96% vs. 121% BoS.s-1). Across the entire study population many sensorimotor factors were associated with TL and TH. However, these associations were not present when age was removed as a factor. Thus, although the older subjects use protective stepping more often, this cannot be attributed directly to the sensorimotor factors tested here. It can be explained by stepping as a triggered response to the perturbation event rather than later sensory input about body movement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)666-674
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of neurophysiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Physiology


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