Thyroid nodules and cancers in children

Jami Josefson*, Donald Zimmerman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


The incidence of thyroid nodules in children is estimated to be 1 to 1.5% based on clinical examination. Children with thyroid nodules, compared to adults with thyroid nodules, have a fourfold greater risk of developing malignant thyroid disease. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is the most common pediatric endocrine tumor, constituting 0.5-3% of all childhood malignancies. The thyroid is one of the most frequent sites of secondary neoplasm in children who receive radiation therapy for other malignancies. Thyroid carcinoma has been studied extensively in adults. However, the pediatric literature on this subject is much less complete, owing to the rarity of its diagnosis. This article reviews the predisposing factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, detailed treatment and follow-up management of children with thyroid carcionoma. Additionally, a discussion regarding the controversial aspects of radioiodine therapy in children is included.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-23
Number of pages10
JournalPediatric Endocrinology Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2008


  • Pediatric thyroid cancer
  • Pediatric thyroid neoplasms
  • Pediatric thyroid nodules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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