Tilted exposure microsphere nanolithography for high-throughput and mask-less fabrication of plasmonic molecules

Alireza Bonakdar, Sung Jun Jang, Hooman Mohseni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


Fabrication of nanostructures for applications such as plasmonics and metamaterials are typically accompanied by a slow production and limited area due to the required sub-micron feature sizes. In these applications, periodic array of metal/dielectric features can produce optical resonance responses such as optical field enhancement response, Fano response, chiral response, and negative refractive index. Here, we propose a mask-less photolithography technique that can produce a variety of periodic nanostructure clusters. The method is based on microsphere nanolithography, which focuses UV field into the so-called photonic jet which is a propagative intensive field underneath the sphere. The position of photonic jet can be moved by changing the angle of exposure. The method introduces a controllable scheme to realize nano-gap size by controlling the angle of exposure. The feature sizes generated by this method are about one third of exposure wavelength. The method is compatible with highthroughput nano-manufacturing schemes, such as roll-to-roll production. Here we present some examples to demonstrate the capabilities of this method in producing an array of complex plasmonic molecules over a large area. The periodicity of array and element's diameter can be tuned by microsphere size and exposure/developing time, respectively. Tilted exposure lithography inherently is self-aligned and readily extendible to deep UV lithography due to absent of mask and optical elements. FDTD simulation agrees well with our experimental results, and suggests that much smaller feature sizes can be achieved at shorter wavelengths.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNanoengineering
Subtitle of host publicationFabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices X
StatePublished - 2013
EventNanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices X - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 27 2013Aug 29 2013

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


OtherNanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices X
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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