Timed overnight sodium and potassium excretion and blood pressure in steel workers in North China

Zhe Kwei Hsiao, S. Y. Wang, Zhao Guang Hong, Kiang Liu, T. Y. Cheng, Jeremiah Stamler*, Shou Chi Tao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Three timed overnight urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K) and creatinine measurements, standardized to 8 h, as well as three blood pressures on corresponding consecutive days were obtained on a sample of 90 steel workers (40 men, 50 women) aged 34-56 years in Beijing, North China. For three indices of electrolyte excretion -absolute Na and K output/8 h, Na:K ratio and 8 h creatinine output-the ratios of intra- to inter-individual variations were less than 1.0 for men, but higher for women in contrast to findings for U.S. population groups of similar age. This fact, probably reflecting greater stability of day to day electrolyte intake by Chinese than Americans, enables reasonably precise characterization of dietary electrolyte intakes of individual Chinese, particularly men, with only a few timed overnight urine specimens. With 3-day mean values for each person, nominally significant (i.e. not adjusted for multiple testing) positive simple correlations were found for urinary Na, Na:K and Na:creatinine with blood pressure [both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)] for men; and women for Na:K with SBP and DBP, but Na:creatinine with SBP only. With control for age, body mass index and pulse in multivariate analyses, only the relationship of Na:K and Na:creatinine to SBP and DBP remained significant for men; a similar, though less strong and consistent, trend was found for women, and K was inversely related to SBP for women. These data are consistent with an association between habitual intake of sodium and risk of hypertension, and also suggest that habitual potassium intake may have a countervailing influence in this regard.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)345-350
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of hypertension
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1986


  • Blood pressure
  • Chinese
  • Urinary creatinine
  • Urinary potassium
  • Urinary sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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