Tools to Measure the Impact of Structural Racism and Discrimination on Gastrointestinal and Hepatology Disease Outcomes: A Scoping Review

Joy J. Liu, Nicole DeCuir, Leila Kia, Jonna Peterson, Corinne Miller, Rachel B. Issaka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background & Aims: Structural racism and discrimination (SRD) are important upstream determinants of health perpetuated by discriminatory laws and policies. Therefore, measuring SRD and its impact on health is critical to developing interventions that address resultant health disparities. We aimed to identify gastrointestinal (GI) or liver studies that report measures of SRD or interventions to achieve health equity in these domains by addressing upstream determinants of health. Methods: We conducted a scoping review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses scoping reviews guidelines. Studies that used an SRD measure or examined an upstream intervention in GI or liver disease were included. Studies that described health disparities in GI or liver conditions without mentioning SRD were excluded. Study characteristics, findings, and limitations were extracted. Results: Forty-six articles (19 studies using SRD measures and 27 studies of upstream interventions) were identified. Measures of residential racial segregation were reported most frequently. SRD was associated with poorer health outcomes for racial and ethnic minority populations. Although upstream intervention studies focused primarily on policies related to colon cancer screening and organ graft allocation, racial and ethnic disparities often persisted post-intervention. Conclusions: To achieve health equity in GI and liver conditions, there is an urgent need for research that goes beyond describing health disparities to incorporating measures of SRD and implementing interventions that address this understudied determinant of health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2759-2788.e6
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume21
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • Cirrhosis
  • Gastrointestinal Cancer
  • Health Equity
  • Liver Transplant
  • Structural Racism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Hepatology

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