Climb atop shoulders and wait for funerals. That, suggested Newton and then Planck, is how science advances (more or less). We’ve come far since then, but many notions about how people and practices, policies, and resources influence the course of science are still more rooted in traditions and intuitions than in evidence. We can and must do better, lest we resign ourselves to “intuition-based policy” when making decisions and investments aimed at driving scientific progress. Science invited experts to highlight key aspects of the scientific enterprise that are steadily yielding to empirical investigation—and to explain how Newton and Planck got it right (and Einstein got it wrong).
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