"Toward Integrative Models of Flow": Effects of Performance, Skill, Challenge, Playfulness, and Presence on Flow in Video Games

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47 Scopus citations


This research examined various predictors of flow in video games. Study 1 examined the effects of performance on flow across two game genres (shooting and medical simulation games) and demonstrated that successful performance results in greater flow. Study 2 demonstrated an interaction effect of skill and challenge on flow across three genres (racing, violent, and prosocial games). Highly skilled players experience greater flow when encountering higher challenge whereas players with moderate and low levels of skill experience less flow when encountering higher challenge. Study 3 tested the moderating role of users' playfulness in an exergame and a music game.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-186
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication

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