Towards bi-metallic injection molds by directed energy deposition

Jennifer L. Bennett*, Haiguang Liao, Tilo Buergel, Gregory Hyatt, Kornel Ehmann, Jian Cao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The throughput of the injection molding process is restricted by the cooling time of each cycle which accounts for three-fourths of the cycle time. Manufacturing molds out of copper or copper alloys can reduce the cooling time because of their high thermal conductivity, but mold life is reduced because copper has much lower hardness and strength than traditional mold materials such as steels. By layering steel onto copper using directed energy deposition, the advantages of both materials can be exploited to reduce cycle time while maintaining mold durability. In this study, 17-4 PH stainless steel was deposited onto a copper substrate to demonstrate the potential to create multi-material injection molds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-81
Number of pages4
JournalManufacturing Letters
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • 17-4 PH stainless steel
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Copper
  • Directed energy deposition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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