Towards developing criteria for scleroderma renal crisis: A scoping review

Sabrina Hoa*, Edward P. Stern, Christopher P. Denton, Marie Hudson, M. Baron, T. Frech, C. Ghossein, S. Johnson, L. Mouthon, S. Proudman, V. Steen, J. Varga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Objective The absence of a gold standard for scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) has hindered our understanding of this problem. The objective of this scoping review was to identify the criteria used to define SRC in order to guide the development of a consensus definition for SRC. Methods We conducted a search in three databases: Medline, Embase and non-Ovid Pubmed. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they were full-length articles in English whose main topic was SRC or scleroderma renal disease. Two reviewers independently screened eligible papers for final study selection. Data was extracted using a customized form. A web-based survey of members of the Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium was used to identify unpublished definitions of SRC. Results We identified 415 papers that met inclusion criteria. Forty original definitions of SRC were identified from 36 studies, 9 reviews and 2 editorials. There was significant heterogeneity in definitions. As a rule, though, in addition to new-onset hypertension and acute kidney injury, other common items used to define SRC included hypertensive encephalopathy and seizures, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and characteristic changes on kidney biopsy. The web-based survey identified unpublished definitions of SRC that were largely consistent with the results of the published literature. Conclusion SRC was defined in a minority of studies and criteria were heterogeneous. A consensus definition of SRC is urgently needed to standardize data collection on SRC and further our understanding of this serious problem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-415
Number of pages9
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017


  • Definition
  • Renal crisis
  • Scleroderma (or systemic sclerosis)
  • Scoping review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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