The development of peptide and protein microarrays has created enormous opportunities in biomedical research. Current chip-based assays are well suited for identifying candidate protein or enzyme activities but still require conventional solution phase experiments to validate hits. Here, three surface-engineering strategies for microarray design are described and are illustrated in the development of a peptide chip for the quantitative analysis of kinase activity on solid support. These strategies promise to widen the application of microarrays by permitting the evaluation of hits in a chip-based format.
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