There are multiple causes of neurotoxicity in children including medications, extrinsic toxins and insults, illicit drugs, built up of toxic metabolites due to genetic or acquired disorders, and metabolic abnormalities. The review is centered on causes of neurotoxicity affecting the pediatric brain and producing typical and easily recognized imaging manifestations. Early identification of common and less common imaging findings may point toward the correct direction, and may facilitate early diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment to reverse or at least limit the injury to the developing brain. Two common imaging patterns of neurotoxicity in children are the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and acute toxic leukoencephalopathy that are usually related to chemotherapy and immunosuppression for common pediatric malignancies. Another well-described imaging pattern of injury in children involves reversible splenial lesions with or without associated white matter abnormalities. Multiple additional extrinsic causes of neurotoxicity are presented including radiation and chemoradiation, various medications and treatment regimens, poisoning, illicit drug use or accidental exposure, and the respective characteristic neuroimaging findings are highlighted. Intrinsic neurotoxicity may occur in the setting of inborn errors of metabolism or acquired progressive organ failure leading to build up of toxic metabolites. Additional intrinsic causes of neurotoxicity include metabolic derangements and characteristic imaging findings in all instances are reviewed. The goal of the article is to enhance familiarity of neurologists and neuroradiologists with the imaging appearance of common and less common toxic insults to the pediatric brain.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology