Pax3 regulates neural crest cell migration and is critical during neural crest development. TGFβs modify neural crest cell migration and differentiation. TGFβ2 nullizygous embryos (TGFβ2-/-Pax3+/+) display open neural tube and bifid spine, whereas in wild type embryos the neural tube is closed. In previous work, we have demonstrated that Pax3 regulates TGFβ2 by directly binding to cis -regulatory elements on its promoter. In this study, we found that the TGFβ2 nullizygous phenotype can be reversed to the wild type phenotype by down-regulating one allele of Pax3, as in TGFβ2-/-Pax3+/- embryos obtained through breeding TGFβ2+/-Pax3+/- mice. The data in this paper suggest that Pax3 and TGFβ2 interact in a coordinated gene regulatory network, linked by common downstream effector genes, to bring about this phenotypic reversal. Downstream effectors may include Hes1, Ngn2 and Sox9, as well as other genes involved in neuronal differentiation.
- Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology