Transesophageal three-dimensional echocardiographic guidance for pacemaker lead extraction

Dale A. Burkett*, Martin Runciman, Pei Ni Jone, Kathryn K. Collins

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: The ability of transesophageal three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) to aid in pacemaker lead extraction has not yet been evaluated. 3DE provides real-time evaluation of intracardiac anatomy and the location of pacemaker leads in greater detail than either fluoroscopy or –two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE), aiding in the extraction of such leads, which can be potentially dangerous. We sought to investigate the feasibility and utility of 3DE to visualize intracardiac anatomy and pacemaker leads, and to assist in lead extraction procedures. Methods: We utilized 3DE in nine encounters for eight different patients, to visualize intracardiac anatomy and leads before, during, and after extraction to evaluate the feasibility and utility to aid in the procedure and evaluate for potential sequelae. Results: 3DE was able to identify pertinent intracardiac anatomy and leads in all cases. 3DE detected procedural complications or altered management in five of nine encounters (five of eight patients); this included detection of an avulsed papillary muscle, tricuspid valve leaflet damage, and cast/thrombus after lead removal, as well as adjustment of excess lead slack to avoid future valve damage, or risk stratification of lead removal. Conclusion: 3DE is feasible and adds utility to lead extraction cases by visualizing intracardiac anatomy and leads beyond fluoroscopy or 2DE, providing real-time information during extraction, and identifying potential complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)641-650
Number of pages10
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • electrophysiology
  • extraction
  • pacemaker
  • transesophageal three-dimensional echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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