Transformable, Freestanding 3D Mesostructures Based on Transient Materials and Mechanical Interlocking

Yoonseok Park, Haiwen Luan, Kyeongha Kwon, Shiwei Zhao, Daniel Franklin, Heling Wang, Hangbo Zhao, Wubin Bai, Jong Uk Kim, Wei Lu, Jae Hwan Kim, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang*, John A. Rogers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Areas of application that span almost every class of microsystems technology, from electronics to energy storage devices to chemical/biochemical sensors, can benefit from options in engineering designs that exploit 3D micro/nanostructural layouts. Recently developed methods for forming such systems exploit stress release in prestretched elastomer substrates as a driving force for the assembly of 3D functional microdevices from 2D precursors, including those that rely on the most advanced functional materials and device designs. Here, concepts that expand the options in this class of methods are introduced, to include 1) component parts built with physically transient materials to allow triggered transformation of 3D structures into other shapes and 2) mechanical interlocking elements composed of female-type lugs and male-type hooks that activate during the assembly process to irreversibly “lock-in” the 3D shapes. Wireless electronic devices demonstrate the utility of these ideas in functional systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1903181
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number40
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • 3D mesostructure
  • 4D structure
  • freestanding
  • microelectronics
  • transformable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrochemistry
  • Biomaterials


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