Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Women and Men

Alice H. Eagly*, Mary C. Johannesen-Schmidt, Marloes L. Van Engen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1143 Scopus citations

Abstract

A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-591
Number of pages23
JournalPsychological Bulletin
Volume129
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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