Transitional care and clinical management of adolescents, young adults, and suspected new adult patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

Susan M. Slattery*, Iris A. Perez, Isabella Ceccherini, Maida L. Chen, Kyle C. Kurek, Kai Lee Yap, Thomas G. Keens, Ilya Khaytin, Heather A. Ballard, Elizabeth A. Sokol, Angeli Mittal, Casey M. Rand, Debra E. Weese-Mayer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose: With contemporaneous advances in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), recognition, confirmatory diagnostics with PHOX2B genetic testing, and conservative management to reduce the risk of early morbidity and mortality, the prevalence of identified adolescents and young adults with CCHS and later-onset (LO-) CCHS has increased. Accordingly, there is heightened awareness and need for transitional care of these patients from pediatric medicine into a multidisciplinary adult medical team. Hence, this review summarizes key clinical and management considerations for patients with CCHS and LO-CCHS and emphasizes topics of particular importance for this demographic. Methods: We performed a systematic review of literature on diagnostics, pathophysiology, and clinical management in CCHS and LO-CCHS, and supplemented the review with anecdotal but extensive experiences from large academic pediatric centers with expertise in CCHS. Results: We summarized our findings topically for an overview of the medical care in CCHS and LO-CCHS specifically applicable to adolescents and adults. Care topics include genetic and embryologic basis of the disease, clinical presentation, management, variability in autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and clarity regarding transitional care with unique considerations such as living independently, family planning, exposure to anesthesia, and alcohol and drug use. Conclusions: While a lack of experience and evidence exists in the care of adults with CCHS and LO-CCHS, a review of the relevant literature and expert consensus provides guidance for transitional care areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-249
Number of pages19
JournalClinical Autonomic Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Autonomic nervous system dysfunction
  • CCHS
  • Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
  • PHOX2B
  • Phrenic nerve-diaphragm pacers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Clinical Neurology


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